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In March the couple fled Paris for Switzerland; ignoring the scandal they left in their wake, they settled in Geneva where, on 18 December, Marie gave birth to a daughter, Blandine-Rachel.

In the following two years Liszt and Marie travelled widely in pursuit of his career as a concert pianist.

Late in , when Marie was heavily pregnant with their second child, the couple were at Como in Italy. Here, on 24 December in a lakeside hotel in Bellagio , a second daughter was born.

They named her Francesca Gaetana Cosima, the unusual third name being derived from St Cosmas , a patron saint of physicians and apothecaries; [5] it was as "Cosima" that the child became known.

With her sister she was left in the care of wet nurses a common practice at the time , while Liszt and Marie continued to travel in Europe.

Their third child and only son, Daniel, was born on 9 May in Venice. In , while Liszt continued his travels, Marie took the social risk of returning to Paris with her daughters.

Her hopes of recovering her status in the city were dented when her influential mother, Madame de Flavigny, refused to acknowledge the children; Marie would not be accepted socially while her daughters were clearly in evidence.

Liszt's solution was to remove the girls from Marie and place them with his mother, Anna Liszt, in her Paris home while Daniel remained with nurses in Venice.

By this means, both Marie and Liszt could continue their independent lives. Marie threatened to fight him "like a lioness", but soon gave up the struggle.

Though they were living in the same city, she did not see either of her daughters for five years, until Cosima and Blandine remained with Anna Liszt until , joined eventually by Daniel.

By the autumn of she and Liszt had become lovers, and their relationship lasted for the remainder of his life. She quickly assumed responsibility for the management of Liszt's life, including the upbringing of his daughters.

Early in Liszt had been disturbed to learn that Blandine and Cosima were seeing their mother again; his response, guided by the princess, was to remove them from their school and place them into the full-time care of Carolyne's old governess, the year-old Madame Patersi de Fossombroni.

Liszt's instructions were clear—Madame Patersi was to control every aspect of the girls' lives: "She alone is to decide what is to be permitted them and what forbidden".

Blandine and Cosima were subjected to the Patersi curriculum for four years. Cosima's biographer Oliver Hilmes likens the regime to that used for breaking in horses, [14] though Marek describes it as exacting but ultimately beneficial to Cosima: "Above all, Patersi taught her how a 'noble lady' must behave, how to alight from a carriage, how to enter a drawing room, how to greet a duchess as against a commoner With him were two fellow-composers: Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner.

Carolyne's daughter Marie, who was present, described Cosima's appearance as "in the worst phase of adolescence, tall and angular, sallow Only her long golden hair, of unusual sheen, was beautiful".

Cosima seems to have made little impression on him; in his memoirs he merely recorded that both girls were very shy.

As his daughters approached womanhood, Liszt felt that a change in their lives was called for and in he arranged over their mother's bitter protests for them to move to Berlin.

After a brief spell conducting in small opera houses, Bülow studied with Liszt, who was convinced that he would become a great concert pianist.

Liszt approved the match, and the marriage took place at St. Hedwig's Cathedral , Berlin, on 18 August I pondered the mystery, without being able to solve it".

Cosima, a Parisian by upbringing, found it hard to adjust to life in Berlin, which was then a more provincial city than Paris.

On one occasion she provided him with a scenario she had written for an opera based on the story of Merlin , court magician to King Arthur. However, nothing came of this project.

Cosima's first child, a daughter born on 12 October , was named Daniela in Daniel's memory. Cosima's second daughter, born in March , was named Blandina Elisabeth Veronica.

Bülow was committed to Wagner's music; in he had undertaken the preparation of a vocal score for Tristan und Isolde , and by he was making a fair copy of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.

Wagner records that Cosima became "transfigured" by his rendering of "Wotan's Farewell" from Die Walküre.

He was still married to his first wife, Minna Planer she was to die in , and was involved in several extramarital relationships.

In Wagner's financial position was transformed by his new patron, the year-old King Ludwig II of Bavaria , who paid off the composer's debts and awarded him a generous annual stipend.

According to Wagner's housekeeper, Anna Mrazek, "it was easy to tell that something was going on between Frau Cosima and Richard Wagner".

Mrazek said that later in the visit von Bülow found his wife in Wagner's bedroom, but nevertheless made no demands for an explanation, either from Wagner or from his wife.

Such was von Bülow's devotion to Wagner that he accepted the child as his own, and registered her as "the legitimate daughter" of Hans and Cosima von Bülow.

Wagner's role at Ludwig's court became controversial; in particular, Ludwig's habit of referring Wagner's policy ideas to his ministers alarmed the court.

When Wagner demanded the sacking both of Ludwig's cabinet secretary and of his prime minister, there was a public outcry, and in December Ludwig reluctantly told Wagner to leave Bavaria.

After a few months' wandering, in March Wagner arrived in Geneva , where Cosima joined him. They travelled together to Lucerne where they found a large lakeside house, the Villa Tribschen.

Wagner made immediate arrangements to rent the house, at the king's expense, and by 15 April was installed in his new home. Immediately upon signing the lease, Wagner invited the von Bülows and their children to stay with him.

Wagner, anxious to avoid associating Cosima in a public scandal, deceived Ludwig into issuing a statement in June which declared the unbroken sanctity of the von Bülows' marriage, and promised retribution for those daring to suggest otherwise.

Through all this, von Bülow retained his devotion to Wagner's music. He had been appointed music director of the Munich Hofoper, and threw himself into the preparations for the premiere of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.

This took place on 21 June under his baton, and was a great success. In October Cosima asked her husband for a divorce, to which he would not initially agree.

To sceptical enquirers he explained her absence from the von Bülow family home by a supposed visit to her half-sister in Versailles.

Wagner and Cosima were married at Lucerne, on 25 August , in a Protestant church. She commemorated the event in her journal: " After it had died away, R R had set up his orchestra on the stairs, and thus consecrated our Tribschen forever!

Wagner's deception over his relationship with Cosima had seriously damaged his standing with Ludwig. Matters were worsened by Ludwig's insistence, over Wagner's objections, that the premieres of the two completed Ring operas, Das Rheingold and Die Walküre , be given at once, in Munich, rather than as part of a complete Ring cycle on some future date at a venue of Wagner's choosing.

On 5 March Cosima, according to her journal, advised him to "look up the article on Baireuth [ sic ] in the encyclopaedia". Wagner announced the first Bayreuth Festival for , at which his full Ring cycle would be performed.

Since Ludwig had declined to finance the project, the start of building was delayed and the proposed date for the initial festival was deferred.

By the spring of only a third of the required funds had been raised; further pleas to Ludwig were initially ignored, but early in , with the entire project on the verge of collapse, the king relented and provided a loan.

Commenting on the struggle to finish the building Wagner remarked to Cosima: "Each stone is red with my blood and yours". During this period Cosima admitted to Liszt, who had taken minor orders in the Catholic Church, that she intended converting to Protestantism.

Her motive may have been more the desire to maintain solidarity with Wagner than from religious conviction; Hilmes maintains that at heart, "Cosima remained a pietistic Catholic until her dying day".

What other power could produce such feelings! Unable to attend the funeral, Cosima expressed her feelings in a letter to her daughter Daniela: "There is nothing left for me to do, except to grieve for the woman that brought me into the world".

From June onwards, Cosima's journal entries consist almost entirely of comments on the forthcoming festival's rehearsals, sometimes warmly approving, often critical and anxious; for example, she found the costumes "reminiscent throughout of Red Indian chiefs It is unlikely that Cosima knew of the affair at this time, though she may have harboured a degree of suspicion.

The festival began on 13 August and lasted until 30th. It consisted of three full Ring cycles, all under the baton of Hans Richter.

After the conclusion of the festival and the departure of the guests, Wagner and Cosima left with the children for Venice, where they remained until December.

The festival had accumulated a large financial deficit; this, and Wagner's deep artistic dissatisfaction, precluded the possibility of any repeat in the near future.

Wagner's mood was such that he seriously contemplated giving up the entire Bayreuth project; [80] he was distracted from such thoughts by an invitation to conduct a series of concerts in London.

Leaving the children behind, he and Cosima enjoyed a two-month break in England where, among others, Cosima met the novelist George Eliot , the poet Robert Browning , and the painter Edward Burne-Jones who made a number of sketches of Cosima from which no finished painting emerged.

The English tour raised little money but restored Wagner's spirits. On his return he began work on what would prove to be his final stage work, Parsifal , a project that would occupy him for most of the next five years.

On a practical level, when the festival's creditors began to press for payment, Cosima's personal plea to Ludwig in persuaded the king to provide a loan to pay off the outstanding debt and open the door to the prospect of a second Bayreuth Festival.

The concert also included the Siegfried Idyll ; Cosima wrote afterwards: "There stands he who has called forth these wonders, and he loves me.

He loves me! Progress on Parsifal was hampered by Wagner's recurrent ill-health, but by late he announced the next festival for , to be devoted entirely to the new work.

Wagner objected on the grounds of Levi's Jewish faith; Parsifal , he maintained, was a "Christian" opera. At the second Bayreuth Festival Parsifal was performed 16 times; at the last performance on 29 August, Wagner himself conducted the final scene.

Overall, she and Wagner were entirely satisfied with the outcome of the festival which, unlike its predecessor, had made a handsome profit: [96] "717ot once did the spirit of toil and dedication on the part of the artists abate I believe one may be satisfied".

Nietzsche considered Parsifal an abomination for which Cosima was responsible; she had corrupted Wagner, and as a non-German she had no business meddling in matters of German culture.

At the conclusion of the festival the Wagner family departed for an extended stay in Venice. To accommodate the large party of children, servants and expected guests they took a spacious apartment in the Palazzo Vendramin Calergi , overlooking the Grand Canal.

According to Isolde, recalling the occasion much later, the Pringle suspicions led to a furious row between Cosima and Wagner on the morning of 13 February.

There is no solid evidence of an affair between Wagner and Pringle, nor is Isolde's story of a row supported by any other testimony.

Cosima sat with Wagner's body for more than 24 hours, refusing all refreshment or respite. She also asked her daughters to cut her hair, which was then sewn into a cushion and placed on Wagner's breast.

Cosima remained in the house until the ceremonies were over; according to her daughter Daniela she then went to the grave "and for a long time lay down on the coffin until Fidi Siegfried went to fetch her".

Wagner had left neither a will, nor instruction on the management of the Bayreuth Festival after his death. Without Cosima's participation the festival, as planned by Wagner—12 performances of Parsifal —went ahead, with Emil Scaria who sang the role of Gurnemanz in the opera doubling as artistic director.

The cast was largely that of , and Levi remained as conductor. At the conclusion of the festival Cosima received a long, critical memorandum from an unknown observer, which highlighted numerous divergences from Wagner's directions.

This, says Marek, proved to be a critical factor in determining her future life's mission: the maintenance of Wagner's heritage creations through the preservation of his interpretations.

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Early in Liszt had been disturbed to learn that Blandine and Cosima were seeing their mother again; his response, guided by the princess, was to remove them from their school and place them into the full-time care of Carolyne's old governess, the year-old Madame Patersi de Fossombroni.

Liszt's instructions were clear—Madame Patersi was to control every aspect of the girls' lives: "She alone is to decide what is to be permitted them and what forbidden".

Blandine and Cosima were subjected to the Patersi curriculum for four years. Cosima's biographer Oliver Hilmes likens the regime to that used for breaking in horses, [14] though Marek describes it as exacting but ultimately beneficial to Cosima: "Above all, Patersi taught her how a 'noble lady' must behave, how to alight from a carriage, how to enter a drawing room, how to greet a duchess as against a commoner With him were two fellow-composers: Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner.

Carolyne's daughter Marie, who was present, described Cosima's appearance as "in the worst phase of adolescence, tall and angular, sallow Only her long golden hair, of unusual sheen, was beautiful".

Cosima seems to have made little impression on him; in his memoirs he merely recorded that both girls were very shy. As his daughters approached womanhood, Liszt felt that a change in their lives was called for and in he arranged over their mother's bitter protests for them to move to Berlin.

After a brief spell conducting in small opera houses, Bülow studied with Liszt, who was convinced that he would become a great concert pianist.

Liszt approved the match, and the marriage took place at St. Hedwig's Cathedral , Berlin, on 18 August I pondered the mystery, without being able to solve it".

Cosima, a Parisian by upbringing, found it hard to adjust to life in Berlin, which was then a more provincial city than Paris. On one occasion she provided him with a scenario she had written for an opera based on the story of Merlin , court magician to King Arthur.

However, nothing came of this project. Cosima's first child, a daughter born on 12 October , was named Daniela in Daniel's memory.

Cosima's second daughter, born in March , was named Blandina Elisabeth Veronica. Bülow was committed to Wagner's music; in he had undertaken the preparation of a vocal score for Tristan und Isolde , and by he was making a fair copy of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.

Wagner records that Cosima became "transfigured" by his rendering of "Wotan's Farewell" from Die Walküre.

He was still married to his first wife, Minna Planer she was to die in , and was involved in several extramarital relationships.

In Wagner's financial position was transformed by his new patron, the year-old King Ludwig II of Bavaria , who paid off the composer's debts and awarded him a generous annual stipend.

According to Wagner's housekeeper, Anna Mrazek, "it was easy to tell that something was going on between Frau Cosima and Richard Wagner".

Mrazek said that later in the visit von Bülow found his wife in Wagner's bedroom, but nevertheless made no demands for an explanation, either from Wagner or from his wife.

Such was von Bülow's devotion to Wagner that he accepted the child as his own, and registered her as "the legitimate daughter" of Hans and Cosima von Bülow.

Wagner's role at Ludwig's court became controversial; in particular, Ludwig's habit of referring Wagner's policy ideas to his ministers alarmed the court.

When Wagner demanded the sacking both of Ludwig's cabinet secretary and of his prime minister, there was a public outcry, and in December Ludwig reluctantly told Wagner to leave Bavaria.

After a few months' wandering, in March Wagner arrived in Geneva , where Cosima joined him. They travelled together to Lucerne where they found a large lakeside house, the Villa Tribschen.

Wagner made immediate arrangements to rent the house, at the king's expense, and by 15 April was installed in his new home. Immediately upon signing the lease, Wagner invited the von Bülows and their children to stay with him.

Wagner, anxious to avoid associating Cosima in a public scandal, deceived Ludwig into issuing a statement in June which declared the unbroken sanctity of the von Bülows' marriage, and promised retribution for those daring to suggest otherwise.

Through all this, von Bülow retained his devotion to Wagner's music. He had been appointed music director of the Munich Hofoper, and threw himself into the preparations for the premiere of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.

This took place on 21 June under his baton, and was a great success. In October Cosima asked her husband for a divorce, to which he would not initially agree.

To sceptical enquirers he explained her absence from the von Bülow family home by a supposed visit to her half-sister in Versailles.

Wagner and Cosima were married at Lucerne, on 25 August , in a Protestant church. She commemorated the event in her journal: " After it had died away, R R had set up his orchestra on the stairs, and thus consecrated our Tribschen forever!

Wagner's deception over his relationship with Cosima had seriously damaged his standing with Ludwig. Matters were worsened by Ludwig's insistence, over Wagner's objections, that the premieres of the two completed Ring operas, Das Rheingold and Die Walküre , be given at once, in Munich, rather than as part of a complete Ring cycle on some future date at a venue of Wagner's choosing.

On 5 March Cosima, according to her journal, advised him to "look up the article on Baireuth [ sic ] in the encyclopaedia". Wagner announced the first Bayreuth Festival for , at which his full Ring cycle would be performed.

Since Ludwig had declined to finance the project, the start of building was delayed and the proposed date for the initial festival was deferred.

By the spring of only a third of the required funds had been raised; further pleas to Ludwig were initially ignored, but early in , with the entire project on the verge of collapse, the king relented and provided a loan.

Commenting on the struggle to finish the building Wagner remarked to Cosima: "Each stone is red with my blood and yours". During this period Cosima admitted to Liszt, who had taken minor orders in the Catholic Church, that she intended converting to Protestantism.

Her motive may have been more the desire to maintain solidarity with Wagner than from religious conviction; Hilmes maintains that at heart, "Cosima remained a pietistic Catholic until her dying day".

What other power could produce such feelings! Unable to attend the funeral, Cosima expressed her feelings in a letter to her daughter Daniela: "There is nothing left for me to do, except to grieve for the woman that brought me into the world".

From June onwards, Cosima's journal entries consist almost entirely of comments on the forthcoming festival's rehearsals, sometimes warmly approving, often critical and anxious; for example, she found the costumes "reminiscent throughout of Red Indian chiefs It is unlikely that Cosima knew of the affair at this time, though she may have harboured a degree of suspicion.

The festival began on 13 August and lasted until 30th. It consisted of three full Ring cycles, all under the baton of Hans Richter.

After the conclusion of the festival and the departure of the guests, Wagner and Cosima left with the children for Venice, where they remained until December.

The festival had accumulated a large financial deficit; this, and Wagner's deep artistic dissatisfaction, precluded the possibility of any repeat in the near future.

Wagner's mood was such that he seriously contemplated giving up the entire Bayreuth project; [80] he was distracted from such thoughts by an invitation to conduct a series of concerts in London.

Leaving the children behind, he and Cosima enjoyed a two-month break in England where, among others, Cosima met the novelist George Eliot , the poet Robert Browning , and the painter Edward Burne-Jones who made a number of sketches of Cosima from which no finished painting emerged.

The English tour raised little money but restored Wagner's spirits. On his return he began work on what would prove to be his final stage work, Parsifal , a project that would occupy him for most of the next five years.

On a practical level, when the festival's creditors began to press for payment, Cosima's personal plea to Ludwig in persuaded the king to provide a loan to pay off the outstanding debt and open the door to the prospect of a second Bayreuth Festival.

The concert also included the Siegfried Idyll ; Cosima wrote afterwards: "There stands he who has called forth these wonders, and he loves me. He loves me!

Progress on Parsifal was hampered by Wagner's recurrent ill-health, but by late he announced the next festival for , to be devoted entirely to the new work.

Wagner objected on the grounds of Levi's Jewish faith; Parsifal , he maintained, was a "Christian" opera.

At the second Bayreuth Festival Parsifal was performed 16 times; at the last performance on 29 August, Wagner himself conducted the final scene.

Overall, she and Wagner were entirely satisfied with the outcome of the festival which, unlike its predecessor, had made a handsome profit: [96] "717ot once did the spirit of toil and dedication on the part of the artists abate I believe one may be satisfied".

Nietzsche considered Parsifal an abomination for which Cosima was responsible; she had corrupted Wagner, and as a non-German she had no business meddling in matters of German culture.

At the conclusion of the festival the Wagner family departed for an extended stay in Venice. To accommodate the large party of children, servants and expected guests they took a spacious apartment in the Palazzo Vendramin Calergi , overlooking the Grand Canal.

According to Isolde, recalling the occasion much later, the Pringle suspicions led to a furious row between Cosima and Wagner on the morning of 13 February.

There is no solid evidence of an affair between Wagner and Pringle, nor is Isolde's story of a row supported by any other testimony.

Cosima sat with Wagner's body for more than 24 hours, refusing all refreshment or respite. She also asked her daughters to cut her hair, which was then sewn into a cushion and placed on Wagner's breast.

Cosima remained in the house until the ceremonies were over; according to her daughter Daniela she then went to the grave "and for a long time lay down on the coffin until Fidi Siegfried went to fetch her".

Wagner had left neither a will, nor instruction on the management of the Bayreuth Festival after his death. Without Cosima's participation the festival, as planned by Wagner—12 performances of Parsifal —went ahead, with Emil Scaria who sang the role of Gurnemanz in the opera doubling as artistic director.

The cast was largely that of , and Levi remained as conductor. At the conclusion of the festival Cosima received a long, critical memorandum from an unknown observer, which highlighted numerous divergences from Wagner's directions.

This, says Marek, proved to be a critical factor in determining her future life's mission: the maintenance of Wagner's heritage creations through the preservation of his interpretations.

In her seclusion, Cosima learned of an abortive plan masterminded by Julius Kniese, the festival's chorus-master, by which Liszt was to assume the role of music director and Bülow would be chief conductor.

Neither Liszt nor Bülow was interested in this arrangement, and the plan died. By this means she secured an unassailable advantage over any other claim on direction of the festival's future.

In Cosima announced that she would direct the festival. Her tenure as Bayreuth's director lasted for 22 years, until During that time she oversaw 13 festivals, and by gradually increasing the repertory established the " Bayreuth canon " of ten mature Wagner works.

Her triumvirate of conductors—Levi, Richter and Felix Mottl —shared the musical direction until , when Levi left. Richter and Mottl served throughout Cosima's years, joined by several of the leading conductors of the day, [] although Bülow resisted all offers to participate.

Although the festival's historian, Frederic Spotts , suggests that Cosima was more creative than she affected to be, the primary purpose of all her productions was to follow the instructions and reflect the wishes of the Master: "There is nothing left for us here to create, but only to perfect in detail".

Shaw scorned the idea that Wagner's wishes were best represented by the slavish copying in perpetuity of the performances he had witnessed.

The resulting harsh declamatory style came to be derided as Parsifal was shown alongside other works at each of Cosima's festivals except for , which was devoted to a revival of the Ring cycle.

In , her first year in charge, she added Tristan und Isolde to the canon. Cosima supervised her father's funeral service and burial arrangements, but refused a memorial concert or any overt display of remembrance.

According to Liszt's pupil Felix Weingartner , "Liszt's passing was not of sufficient importance to dim the glory of the Festival, even for a moment".

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Ditaur says:

Diese Phrase unvergleichlich, ist))), mir gefällt:)

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